Costly Signaling

Costly signaling is the act of doing something that purposely hampers or hurts you just to show that you can take it. For example, a consultant sacrificing clients they don’t really like, despite losing cash, or someone quitting a job they don’t like, just because they have so many other options. Underlying Psychology/Biases Costly signaling works […]


Framing is a very powerful tool to change how others perceive you. You change the point of view from which you analyze something. Framing can be done at multiple stages: Pre-Framing, which is all about defining the frame and positioning you want before anyone even comes to you; Reframing, which is all about changing the existing frame […]


Anchoring (also known as the primacy effect) is simply the effect that dictates that a person will use the first impression of something as the filter for every subsequent interaction. Underlying Psychology/Biases Sub-Techniques Anchoring itself can be used as tool to make yourself look better or change your positioning You anchor the person with the initial impression you want to […]


You can change your positioning to appear more unique or higher-value by leveraging multiple tools related to anchoring, framing and contrast and others. There are three main ways to achieve this: Change your anchoring and/or your consented claims If you claim to be the best, the fastest, or whatever the initial claim is, anyone that is coming to you […]


In persuasion, identification is simply the process of having elements in common with your target, which persuades as they identify with you. There are usually two key elements to identification: Eliciting (asking for the characteristics you want); “I only work with top performers”; “I only work with managers that recognize my talent”; Embodiment (embodying similar characteristics to […]

Social Proof

Social proof is having your value validated or demonstrated by people. It can be considered a type of displayed authority. Common methods include: Mentioned in Ultimate Persuasion: Testimonials; Referrals; Recommendations; Word of mouth; Introductions; Associations; Others: High-demand (queues in stores, full calendars, others); Underlying Psychology/Biases Social proof works by simply illustrating in a person’s mind […]

Displayed Authority

Displayed authority is any vehicle that communicates your authority that is not you. Third-party objects or people, for example. Underlying Psychology/Biases When someone communicates their own authority, they risk sounding biased. They may be exaggerated or lying. But when someone else (or an object) communicates the original person’s authority, they sound unbiased and fair (regardless of whether this […]

Adverse Transparency

In persuasion, adverse transparency is the act of being transparent about things that are not good for you, and that you didn’t need to share. Choosing to share them anyway communicates honesty and authority. It can be used for two different purposes: To increase honesty and authority at the framing stage (to show you’re trustworthy, a trusted […]

Abundance and Cost

In terms of persuasion, abundance works because it creates the impression of not needing any particular person (or event). This communicates high value and non-neediness. The opposite, neediness, creates an immediate negative reaction and communicates low value. One of the best ways to communicate abundance is to use costly signaling. This is the act of doing […]


Performing a diagnostic or diagnosing is the act of asking your target or prospect questions in order to know more about their needs. This allows your recommendation, at the end of it, to seem more tailored (whether it actually is or not); The key here is that the tailored recommendation will be authentic. Sometimes, the recommendation will not be what you’re […]


Secrecy persuades as, in terms of persuasion, simply stating that the source of something is secret or non-public immediately makes it more persuasive. Underlying Psychology/Biases Secrecy creates intrigue and interest as the person does not share the information that the influencing person (ostensibly) does. It also serves as a type of displayed authority (the source of […]